Killer question – Is the financial chart you are looking at really showing what it purports to?


Kevin Murphy

Kevin Murphy

Fund Manager, Equity Value

Should The Value Perspective be employing a ninja or some other type of assassin? We only wonder because of a recent piece of analysis by empirical research partners that included the following graph, which shows the average returns recorded by companies in the year after their Chief Executive left office because of retirement, resignation or death..

Date as at October 2013

The chart uses data going back to 1977 and, as you can see, the companies whose chief executives died have easily done best. still, before you think about hiring a sniper as a way of boosting your portfolio performance by a few percentage points, we should quickly point out this chart is actually a much clearer illustration than one normally gets to see of the difference between correlation and causation.

We believe this chart shows more about the former rather than the latter. There is no serious suggestion here that, if you went out and assassinated the chief executives of all the companies you own, your portfolio would suddenly outperform. Well, that may depend on the company and the chief executive – but then that is precisely the point.

It is not the chief executives’ deaths that create the outperformance here but some other relationship – one that is undefined and unknowable from this chart. However, what should be clear from the chart – or at least we would hope there are few people reading this who would conclude otherwise – is that what looks to be the explanatory variable may really be a spoof or red herring.

With the above chart, it seems probable the data has been skewed – perhaps because the number of chief executives who die in office is likely to be a very small sample. Often, however, the data contained in a chart will look utterly plausible and you will feel certain you are being shown a causation when, in reality, it is actually measuring something entirely different that you cannot see or has been created through a small data set, odd time horizon or some other influencing factor.

The lesson here is that charts are trotted out all the time in finance and investment that fail to include, say, a range of the highest and lowest variables that could provide a missing piece to the puzzle. Clearly we would like to think this does not happen on The Value Perspective but, as a general rule, when confronted with a chart you should ask yourself whether it is really showing what it purports to.


Kevin Murphy

Kevin Murphy

Fund Manager, Equity Value

I joined Schroders in 2000 as an equity analyst with a focus on construction and building materials.  In 2006, Nick Kirrage and I took over management of a fund that seeks to identify and exploit deeply out of favour investment opportunities. In 2010, Nick and I also took over management of the team's flagship UK value fund seeking to offer income and capital growth.

Important Information:

The views and opinions displayed are those of Ian Kelly, Nick Kirrage, Andrew Lyddon, Kevin Murphy, Andrew Williams and Andrew Evans, members of the Schroder UK Specialist Value Team (the Value Perspective Team), and other independent commentators where stated. They do not necessarily represent views expressed or reflected in other Schroders' communications, strategies or funds. The Team has expressed its own views and opinions on this website and these may change.

This article is intended to be for information purposes only and it is not intended as promotional material in any respect. Reliance should not be placed on the views and information on the website when taking individual investment and/or strategic decisions. Nothing in this article should be construed as advice. The sectors/securities shown above are for illustrative purposes only and are not to be considered a recommendation to buy/sell.

Past performance is not a guide to future performance and may not be repeated. The value of investments and the income from them may go down as well as up and investors may not get back the amounts originally invested.